1. Food comes in 22 different types:
Each planet has the ability to grow different types of foods based on its orbit of the planet (and therefore heat from it's star*), and also the mineral composition of the planet. Orbit 3 is the most Earth-like, and can also grow the most types of foods, however orbit 3 planets tend to be smaller naturally. Orbits 2, 4, and 5 are also good for growing a variety of foods. Nothing grows naturally at orbit 8, so in order to grow food you'll need to terraform the planet.
Food is also important when it comes to happiness. When throwing parties at a Park, the more food types you have available the more happiness will be generated by the party. In addition, if you have fewer than 3 food types your citizens will revolt. And if you have more than 3 food types their happiness will constantly grow.
Different types of food can be generated by building different food factories. Each food type has an associated factory. The one thing to keep in mind with food factories is that food in does not equal food out. There is always some loss when food processing is done. Also consider building the glyph buildings Algae Pond, Amalgus Meadow, Beeldeban Nest, Denton Brambles. You can increase your manufacturing affinity to stem that loss and even get more food out than you put in.
*according to the administrator icydee, the distance to each sun is the same for its planets
2. Ore comes in 20 types:
Having certain ore types is a critical aspect for building plans in Space Station Labs or constructing and upgrading buildings (like Shield Against Weapons or Pilot Training Facility). Therefore it is wise to have an equal distribution of ore types available which is granted by extracting ore on type p35 planets. For this purpose your best building is the glyph building Volcano.
3. Water is produced for example by water purification plants and the glyph building Natural Spring. Water is the key to your prosperity, but is also the least abundant resource in the Expanse. Most planets have at least some small amount of water, but there are artificial ways to produce water on those worlds that don't contain very high concentrations. The Bodies Composition table lists the water available for each type of planet. Gas giants are known to lack water.
4. Energy is produced by power plants for example and the glyph building Geo Thermal Vent. Everything you do and every building you construct requires energy. It is probably the easiest resource to acquire, however most power plants require some specific type of ore, which could create some complications. There are several types of buildings that produce energy with some being more efficient than others. In order to produce the most efficient types of power your University building level will need to be very high.
In addition there is waste and happiness which have great influence onto your empire. See their respective wiki pages for details. Also have a look at this illustration to give an overview of each resource: