The Energy Reserve stores your energy with a minimal amount of loss. Increasing the level of the building raises the amount of energy stored. Base storage is 1000 + 4% per science affinity point.
The Food Reserve stores your food with a minimal amount of spoilage. It also gives you a report of the types of food you have stored. Increasing the level of this building increases the amount of food that can be stored. Base storage is 1000 + 4% per farming affinity point.
Ore Storage Tanks
Ore Storage Tanks store the ore that is pulled from the Mine. The higher the level of the building the more ore can be stored. Base storage is 1000 + 4% per mining affinity point.
Planetary Command Center
The planetary command center (PCC) houses the central government for your empire. This is your "flag in the ground" that lets everyone know you've staked your claim to a planet. It provides some basic resources and and storage for those resources both of which increase with the level of this building. The planetary command center also provides some critical reports on your planetary activities such as total resource production and total resource storage for the planet it's constructed on. It's one of the most versatile buildings in the game, but it's also very expensive to upgrade.
The stockpile is an advanced building that provides storage while allowing you to build your resource buildings higher than level 20 on the planet that contains the stockpile. For every 3 levels of the stockpile, you can build your resource buildings 1 level higher than 20. With a level 30 University, resource buildings can be further upgraded to level 30.
The Supply Pod is a ship that lands on the surface of your planet and acts as temporary storage. You can send 1 supply pod per day per planet to any inhabited planet. "Per day" means "per 24 hour period."
The Waste Exchanger is a combination of a waste recycling center, waste sequestration well, and a waste treatment center. It tears apart waste at a molecular level and recombines it into useful resources.
Waste Recycling Center
The Waste Recycling Center allows you to manually convert batches of waste into energy, ore and water. The more waste you convert, the longer it will take to make the resources you want. The higher the level of the building the more waste can be converted in one process. You can also spend a small amount of Essentia to convert the waste instantly.
Waste Sequestration Well
The Waste Sequestration Well is a place for your empire to store it's waste. Waste that is not stored turns into pollution and lowers your empire's happiness. The higher the building level the more waste can be stored.
Water Storage Tank
The Water Storage Tank stores the water you've collected. A higher building level allows more water to be stored. Base storage is 1000 + 4% per environmental affinity point.